Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease marked by the presence of excessive blood sugar and sugar in the urine.  It is often seen in older adults who have a history of obesity and hypertension but it is now also occurring in obese adolescents. Often the tendency to develop diabetes with obesity in adulthood is a strong family trait.  Maintaining a BMI within the accepted range is the best prevention for adult onset diabetes. Good nutrition, a healthy diet, and daily exercise are three strong preventive treatments to prevent type 2 diabetes.

Causes

Type 2 diabetes is associated with insulin resistance or when the body does not respond to insulin adequately and blood sugars remain elevated. Insulin resistance is a major medical problem whose parameters physicians do not fully understand. Eating a diet rich in vegetables, healthy grains, and legumes is an important preventative approach to type 2 diabetes.

Diagnosis

Type 2 diabetes can be diagnosed by testing sugar levels in blood and urine.  A glucose tolerance test can be used to assess how your body responds to sugar stress from a high sugar containing syrup that the patient ingests. The Hemoglobin A1C can be used to see how elevated your blood sugars have been over time. All three types of measures, as well as insulin levels, can be used to assess, evaluate, and track the progress of this disease.

Treatment

Treatment includes the use of oral medication to force the pancreas to produce more insulin, and dietary changes that maintain moderate levels of carbohydrates. Some adults also take long-acting insulin to treat more stubborn cases of type 2 diabetes. Many long-term medical issues are associated with diabetes including eye, heart, and kidney problems. Regular visits to specialists are required to monitor the side effects of diabetes and to quickly respond to any signs of early complications. Good glucose control, proper diet, and adequate exercise leading to weight loss are all good ways to positively approach this illness.